Families Marowski and Junge Went West from Prussia
by Gisela Laudi from Kiel, Germany
Part 2: The MAROWSKI ( = Morouski or similar ) - JUNGE ( =Young) - ROEMMELE - BATES - KING
- LEE history will be continued in spring edition of GTHS Journal ,
written by descendant Donna Rau
Church and town of Oderberg 1855, at Oder river, Kingdom of Prussia
Lets have a look at some families living in ODERBERG in the first half of the 19th century, who later were connected by family and neighbourhood in Texas.
ODERBERG is a small town some 30 miles NE from BERLIN. It is situated on the ODER river, which today is the German-Polish border.
In that time Oderberg was in the middle of the Kingdom of Prussia, province Brandenburg, and the town then had no more than abt. 1500 inhabitants.
Map "Germany 1815 -1871": Families MAROWSKI, JUNGE, TUBBE, DEWITZ, LANGE came from Oderberg, Kingdom of Prussia (grey)
The ROEMMELE family most probably came from the state BADEN (pink)
I am a
German hobby genealogist. One day my husband and I started
researching in ODERBERG. My own ancestors were the Fam. TUBBE.
We soon discovered a letter of descendant John TUBBE from
Nacogdoches, Tx. who had sent it to the church office in
Oderberg asking for his ancestors. Of course that made it even
more exciting for us. We contacted the TUBBEs after we found out
he was my 7th cousin. Together with John's wife Sarah TUBBE we
continued researching very intensively. Some wonderful
friendships developed and several times we flew over the ocean.
By and by we accumulated such an amount of interesting facts and stories, that one day I started writing my historical novel : the lifestory of "JUSTINA TUBBE", seen by her own eyes. This brave woman fascinated me. She had given birth to 9 children within 26 years, she also raised her niece = my g-g-grandmother (being an early orphan) and emigrated to Texas in 1855 when she was 60 years old already ! !
Little did I expect that JUSTINA's lifestory would be chosen one day for an emigration-exhibition of the World-EXPO-2000 and by the "German Emigration House", Bremerhaven (parallel to Ellis Island) to show a typical example of a simple emigrant woman.
Germany :"Justina Tubbe" by Westkreuz Verlag
In USA : "I am Justina Tubbe", by Caroline Ericson Books, Nacogdoches, Family histories L1000
Justina TUBBE's daughter Charlotte TUBBE was married to Fritz
JÙNGE, and his sister Wilhelmine JUNGE was married to
Justina's nephew Wilhelm MAROWSKI.
After having finished all the TUBBE research I was very curious to also know the wherabouts of this JUSTINAs nephew.
By an inquiry in the German Texan Mailing List I hit the jackpot ! Indeed MAROWSKI- descendant Donna Rau, Oregon, got in touch and was fascinated as well. GTHS editor Liz Hicks, Tx. contacted us, and by a wonderful teamwork we researched these family stories.
TUBBE's sister was Luise HEIN *1897; both were daughters of
Friedrich HEIN, a master cooper in Oderberg. A few years after
the Napoleonic wars Luise HEIN married
Paul Wilhelm MAROWSKI in 1819. He
was a master shoemaker, son of a gardener from Danzig area, and
"took his Oderberg burgher oath" in 1819, as every handcrafter
had to do. That gave him the right to run his profession in
town. He had some duties as i.g. to defend the town in day or
night, to pay the taxes and fees, he had to obey the
authorities, to be a Christian, should be married and to own a
house in town.
Those days a master shoemaker made the whole shoe by hand, and they would be worn ten years or longer and were repaired many times.
But it was a time of big changes, spurring by industrialisation. Steam engines took over hand work by and by, as well as in agriculture and production of goods. The first railways were build and goods produced in factories and shipped could be sold much cheaper than handmade local goods. Life for some handcrafters such as weavers was getting harder and harder, and hunger revolts in some areas are well known.
Outside the towns serfdom in 1804 had already been abolished by law. Now even all the former serfs and also all the servants could marry and have children. You can tell by increasing amout of church records. Most couples had lots of children and the progression of medicine and vaccinations helped them to survive. If ever they owned some land, different heritage laws gave it to only the oldest / or youngest son, in some areas other heritage laws sometimes divided land into tiniest portions. We found maps with fields which could be as small as 20 feet and 40 feet long. Most people had no land at all, and had to be day laborer or workers in the factories in big towns. There was a lack of land although noblemen owned most, and only they had the right of hunting. A certain Karl Marx complained all these circumstances and developed the idea of socialism.
map of fields in the Prussian area of the HELPENSTELL family's
Paul & Luise MAROWSKI were relativly well off, at least they were able to buy the now called MAROWSKI-house in 1829. Today it is well restored and the pride of town. The couple raised five children. Besides of the income of the workshops accommodated in their homes, handcrafters in town would have had some geese and hens, perhaps a pig and one cow and a small meadow, just to feed the cow, and a tiny piece of land, just enough to harvest the wheat and rye for bread for the family's need.
Postcard of abt 1890 , "painters corner".
Ludwig Wilhelm Marowski' spend his childhood in this house in Oderberg, Kingdom of Prussia
Their oldest son was : Ludwig Wilhelm (=William) MAROWSKI
After his eight years in town school and confirmation in the lutheran church, he probably had a 3 years commercial apprenticeship. Then probably he was drafted by the Prussian Army for 4 years as every young man was. He became a merchant after and lived some time in Hamburg.
Not all families were so well off.
At the same time
family JUNGE in Oderberg was bad off. Friedrich JUNGE, father of 6 children was a "peasant burgher", but
don't you think he owned a lot of land. The family lived in a tiny
house in town.
In 1826 he died and his wife Anna-Maria Schumann-JUNGE impoverished terribly. Here is the original letter in which she begs the officials for help. Being a widow she had to support 6 minor kids and an old mentally ill and mad mother. She would have to pay extra tax for building higher dikes due to high water, and there had been no harvest.
First page of mother JUNGE's begging letter 1829
To the Most Praiseworthy Royal Government.
28th August 1829. I most
submissively beg for compensation of the damage I’ve suffered by a 3-years
inundation of my ground by which I have been put into a most indigent state.
I have to
lay these great troubles I am in to the feet of the Most Praisable Royal
Government, hoping it will be granted a most gracious answer. For the last two
years I have been a widow with six minor children in the standing of a small
peasant owning a very dilapidated house with one room, 1 acre of arable land, 4
meadows and 2 gardens on which I am earning my poor living as well as the
newly-imposed class and war tax without falling behind.
With the conditions of time pressing it is an impossibility
for me to bear these contributions further on having but my land, paddocks and
gardens as a resource of income. My house and my ground are encumbered with a
debt of 800 Thaler on which I have to pay 4 Thaler interest to be added 15
Thaler class- and war tax, 16 ½ Thaler community taxes and 6 Thaler fire
insurance fees, everything summing up to 77 ¾ Thaler.
Even when leaving away these contributions still standing out I’ve had the
reverse of losing my husband, who died for consumption having been sick 6 years
Likewise I’ve to care for my totally crazy 70 years old mother-in-law, who is causing much damage in my household. 5 of my cows have fallen for cattle-plague. In addition thereto I have to cope with my pastures and gardens being submerged, court-fees for the heritage contract with my children, funeral cost and some more expenses. I can provide evidence for everything being the sum of 240 Thalers.
All I have suffered within the last two years has left me completely stripped and don´t know how to furtheron pay for the maintenance of my household and my livelihood. There’s nothing I can sell any more and with my pastures and gardens having been the mean source of my bread and butter now laying under water there’s no income from them any longer as well. I see myself forced to give up even those two heads of cattle I am still owning for lack of fodder.
These my legitimate reasons mentioned make me hope they will be granted a support from the Most Praisable Royal Government for which herewith I am most humbly and most submissively asking, trusting that I will receive mitigation of sorrows and some relief of my great troubles. In high expectancy of a most graceful answer I am dying away with awe and faithfulness to a Most Praisable Royal Government,
Widow Friedrich Junge
Potsdam, Sept. 8th 1829
Government answer to this :
Concerning Mrs. Junge´s request the relief asked for cannot be granted because of funds lacking.
signed : v. Flatow, Wehlenbach (Potsdam 10th Sept. 1829)
Some explanations : A „garden“ in
those times meant a field with vegetable and fruit-trees. When Anna Maria
Junge´s husband died, she was obliged to regulate inheritance matter .
her 6 minor children there had a guardian to be engaged by court, because she
was „but“ a woman, and only a man could have the right of solicitude for
children. Every child inherited as much as she.
She could not sell neither fields nor house in order to get rid of her
obligations or at least to have some money to live on. This guardian is supposed
to not have agreed to selling house or fields in order to protect the children´s
inheritance - even for the price of a starving mother.
The 1830s for
most people still were quite peaceful times but they longed for more
liberalization, for freedom of the press, for the right to vote.
In the middle of the 1840s the Colorado beetle caused some failed harvests and caused a bad famine. The many men without any land who had moved into the cities worked for very low wages and lived in unthinkable bad conditions. Better situated people could afford food. Better educated and studied men longed for participation in governing and a constitution. Facing autocratic leadership of the roughly 250 different German states at that time they were dreaming of an united Germany of all German speaking countries.
Due to hunger as well as demand for more democracy many people started an uproar and caused the revolution in March 1848. But the Prince of Prussia let people be shot down by their own soldiers. The revolution failed resulting in a kind of police state and great disappointment by the population.
In the same time a story spread out about a country where you can do every profession without restrictions, there is free economy and democracy, you can do whatever you want, a land "where the doves will fly into your mouth"....And most amazingly : in Texas you can still get land for free !
The very poorest could not afford the fare, but many others sold everything to go West. The Kingdom of Prussia did not like emigration and you had to pay, wait and argue to get a permit.
In March 1849 the 30 years old William MAROWSKI married
the oldest daughter of that poor family JUNGE : Wilhelmine
called "Minnie"(34). Who knows ? Perhaps his father disliked this
connection. William's mother had died in 1844 already and his
father was married the second time now.
On 14. march 1850 the first daughter of William & Minnie was born : Aurora MAROWSKI.
This young family was the first emigrants documented in the Oderberg files to apply for a permit for emigration. In the moment of receiving it they lost their Prussian citizenship. With the 4 weeks old baby they took the train to Bremen, continued to Bremerhaven by small vessel and sailed on the 3-mast sailing vessel "Ocean". The baby was fine during the whole crossing and did not even become seasick.
Original picture of ship "Ocean" (Deutsches Schifffahrtsmuseum, Bremerhaven)
Such a full-riged ship would have been
around 100 ft long, 25 ft. wide, 15 ft draft. The OCEAN
transported 225 passengers with the MAROWSKI family and reached
Baltimore 1st June 1850. Most of them booked between-decks, only
few could afford traveling 1st cabin.
The majority crossed the ocean for just economical reasons and a hope for a better life. Only relatively few were so-called "48ers" who went because of political reasons.
View into between-deck, advertisement drawing, in reality it was much more crowded !!
There were unbelievable unhygienic conditions on board. Drinking water was still taken from rivers and poor food was supplied. There were no tables and chairs and always four people slept in a double bunk bed. Hardly any washing was possible, not even for used linnen diapers. Lots of vermin were all over, not mentioning all the seasick men and only 4 latrines.....
Often passengers died on the way and most were weak and sick on arrival. But in this time there was only superficial medical examination on arrival and nobody asked for documents - men were needed.
An American clerk would ask them for their names and spell them just the way he'd like, which caused plenty of mistakes in the ships arrival lists. MAROWSKI became MAROUSKI, or JUNGE became TUNKE. Given names also were mixed, because in Germany only one of several baptism names was the used one (there are no so-called "middle names"). The first one is not always the used one, very often it is the second or the third.
In between-decks every four persons slept in each shelf
"Seasick in 1st cabin"
The MAROWSKIs arrived in Baltimore on 1st June 1850.
(Name misspelled in the ship's list: MAROUSKY , many different misspellings in American files as Morouski, etc... )
In fall 1850 William Marowski wrote a letter home and he seemed very content:
Baltimore, Nov.10, 1850
we’re happy to have arrived here in Baltimore (North America, in the state of Maryland). We’ve been on a very big ship and didn’t have to fear any danger while on sea. I had intended to not stay in Baltimore. But as it was such a big and living city we soon decided to stay and the city having 180 000 inhabitants and increasing very much every year because most of the immigrants are settling right away in town we don’t regret this decision. Year after year more than tousand homes are built so that Baltimore is bigger than Berlin already now. But it’s but far more living like Hamburg.
But in spite of this there isn’t a starch factory. Starch is bought from New York, Philadelphia and Germany and is 7 to 8 $ per hundredweight (the American pound is less than the German one and a hundredweight is but 100 pounds). One Dollar is the equivalent of 1 German Thaler and 15 Silver Groschen. That’s why for the time being I decided to produce starch. It can be made very easily from wheat flour because a barrel of first quality (196 pounds) is 5 dollars and you’ll get the oak barrel free.
As vinegar is very rare here (mostly mixed with Spanish pepper) I put up a vinegar factory as well together with a little store. The whole busyness is running very well and to my satisfaction.
But everything would have been much easier for me if my wife wouldn’t have been sick for some weeks. But now she’s well again and so am I. Our little Aurora hasn’t been sick at all so far ( not even sea sick) and she’s very strong.
At the moment my main occupation is producing starch and I’ve rented a whole house for only us. The homes here aren’t as big as the Berlin ones.
There’s very little German spoken here so from the first moment I had to take my English dictionary and study diligently for what the lessons I had in Hamburg 8 years ago came in very useful for me.
Dear parents, I think you would like to know something about general living conditions here. In general conditions are good if not so good as they normally are told to be and as most of the immigrants think expecting fried chicken to fly right into their mouthes. But nevertheless I must say (that it is something special*) ) to see the normal worker going to and coming from work walking upright in a white ironed shirt of cambric or fine cotton with collar and cuffs. And he’s working but 10 hours a day here. Working hours are from 7 a.m. until noon and from 1 p.m. to 6 p.m. At the beginning of work and at the end all bells are rung. Saturday afternoon work stops at 4 p.m. Then the weekly market starts that lasts until midnight.
Wages are very different ranging from ¾ to 2 ½ $ per day, some only would earn ½ $ a day. There are no taxes to be paid for factory owners and workers. Only merchands have to pay such. Every white man is free here whereas blacks and browns aren’t free and have to be day laborers being forbidden to run a business.
You don’t have to register with the police and nobody would ask for your passport or other papers.
On Sundays all shops are closed as are the ‘tobacco halls’ where you can get alcholic drinks.
Dear parents and relatives, I’m sending you
my most heartly regards.
Your loving son LW Marowski together with wife and daughter
My adress is Mister Marowski n Baltimore Nr. 113 Bonn Street (Fells Point) in North America
At the end of the letter there’s an addition: In order to ensure puctual payment in Berlin I already had paid in a part so that the debt in question will be paid off.
I added this italicized part that is missing in the original
letter. The autor compares the appearance of American and
Prussian workers. From his home in Oderberg Mr. Marowski
was used to workers looking emaciated and bent and wearing old
worn-out clothes but never white shirts.
A letter took 6 month one way then. Although the letter was
sent to his parents, it was probably read by all relatives
and friends in Oderberg.
Minnie Marowski's brothers Fritz and Ferdinand JUNGE had become
bakers, and sure enough it was like a dream for them to get free
land in America.
two years after Minnie had left,
Fritz JUNGE married Charlotte TUBBE (Justina's daughter).
Family saga tells they left the very same day from Oderberg.
With them was Charlotte's brother Wilhelm ("Willi") TUBBE.
Obviously they sailed without any permit via Hamburg by ship
"Johanne Elise". After Charlotte gave birth to their first
daughter Fanny in Philadelphia in 1853 they probably went by
steam ship along a then existing river system to St.Louis, and
went on by wagon train to Nacogdoches, Tx. They settled on their
own given land 5 miles SW off the market place on
hwy. 225 .
In 1855 Minnie MAROWSKI in Baltimore wrote home to Oderberg a very heartbreaking sad letter. She was terribly homesick, she was ill, she could not sew for a lady any more and complained that nobody was there to comfort her although all of this was her fault..... ( unfortunatly we don't have the second page of the letter)
Baltimore, Apr. 4, 1855
Beloved parents, sister and relatives,
In that time Minnie MAROWSKI was probably pregnant with her second daughter Elisabeth, called "Lizzie". Couldn't Minnie stand this big city Baltimore any more ? Did her brother Fritz JUNGE offer them to live with them in Nacogdoches ? Obviously Fritz bought land on his brother-in-law's name nearby. In the tax list in 1856 William MAROWSKI owned 100 acres, value $300 on the Jose Cruz survey, nearest stream-Alazan Creek.
When this sad letter arrived in Oderberg, the TUBBE emigration group was already about to leave in Sept. 1855. They had been talked into joining the settlers in Texas, and old Mom Justina TUBBE (60) had decided to go together with her oldest son Ludwig TUBBE (40) and her youngest son August TUBBE (14 !). With them was also Ferdinand JUNGE, who lateron lived on land neighboring his brother Fritz. Some other Oderberg people joined up with them as Fam. DEWITZ to Nacogdoches, Fam. WINTER to St.Louis, and three girls LANGE (to ??). They sailed to New Orleans in fall 1855 by ship "Tuisko". It took them 8 weeks at sea and one month to go by ship to Natchitoches and by wagon to Nacogdoches.
Just after the party in 1855 had left, old Mom Anna-Maria JUNGE died, perhaps of broken heart : Now only 3 JUNGE siblings remained in Oderberg : the oldest, Wilhelm-Bartolomäus, who was married to a quite rich woman; second Henriette, who was married to the town clerk PUFFPAFF in Oderberg and had a sick son; and the youngest daughter AMALIE JUNGE who had probably taken care of her Mom. She was still unmarried at 35 years of age --- maybe she had no dowry and difficulties finding a man ? Only a few month later she also applied for emigration to "make a better life" in America.
Oderberg den 26. April 1856
Unterschrift : Amalie Junge
Oderberg, Apr. 26th 1856
Appears by her
own free will
signed: Amalie Junge
Amalie JUNGE sailed by ship
"Mississippi" to New Orleans in 1856, accompanied by midwife
Florentine LANGE from Oderberg, sure a relative of the three
young LANGE women living in Nacogdoches or in St-Louis already.
In 1857 the MAROWSKI family in Baltimore decided also to move to Nacogdoches : they wrote their new adress to brother Julius MAROWSKI in Oderberg. What made them move to Texas ?
Entry by brother Julius Marowski in Oderberg in his notice booklet
Now all four JUNGE ( = YOUNG) emigrant-siblings met in Nacogdoches :
Fritz JUNGE and family, Ferdinand JUNGE, Amalie JUNGE, and Minnie JUNGE-Marowski and family.
Also Fritz JUNGE's wife Charlotte TUBBE-JUNGE had her Mom Justina TUBBE and three siblings nearby: William, Ludwig and August TUBBE.
There now was a big German community in Nacogdoches : The mentioned families JUNGE and MAROWSKI, the families TUBBE and DEWITZ, maybe the 4 LANGE women, which all came from Oderberg. The family REYDER lived nearby to fam. HELPENSTELL, fam. KOLB, and fam. SEELBACH, who all came from a Western Prussian area ( 50 miles from Cologne) and many other German speaking famlilies .(* see list on bottom)
Lots of intermarriages are known within the next generations. Even in our generation when my friend and 7th cousin John TUBBE ( TUBBE and KOLB descendant) was engaged to his Sarah HILL ( SEELBACH and HELPENSTELL descendant) some asked fearing too close relationship by blood.
One of the other German families was fam.
Thomas ROEMMELE (=Remmele/Rimmele). They came from the Grand
Duchy BADEN far South in the todays Germany and spoke quite a
Amalie JUNGE soon met her future husband, probably a relative, Karl Franz "Frank" ROEMMELE ( *? +1869). They married 11 August 1857 in Collin County, TX, and stayed in McKinney. Did they hear from a Phillip Römmele ( brother, cousin, relative ??) about the possibility to buy valuable land in Collin county ? Or didn't they come along with the others ? Who knows ?
The Minnie& William MAROWSKI family in 1857 followed the young couple to Collin Co. to live beside the Frank & Amalie ROEMMELEs.
William MAROWSKI's father died in 1864. Maybe he passed on some values to his four granddaughters Aurora, Lizzie, Pauline and Henriette MAROWSKI (= Moroski or similar). There are many descendants of these daughters : Aurora BATES, Lizzie LEE, Pauline KING, Henriette KING, and Charles ROEMMELE.
(The story of these families will be continued by Donna Rau in the next GTHS Journal )
Ferdinand JUNGE disappeared from Nacogdoches in abt. 1866. Family saga suspects he was homesick and also wanted to claim their inheritance from their oldest brother's Wilhelm-Bartol. JUNGE's death in 1866, Oderberg . Or did Ferdinand JUNGE go West or was he killed somewhere ? We don't know what has happened to him but one day his brother Fritz sold the land he had owned. Wilhelm Bartol. JUNGE in Oderberg had died by a gunshot wound he received when his home was raided by an unknown group of bandits. He left 2200 Thaler to his 4 American siblings, but the will reduced : only after his wife's death, so there was no inheritance yet.
Fritz JUNGE and his wife Charlotte TUBBE began burying family members on a knoll just above their log cabin. There are eleven marked graves in the cemetery today and several unmarked graves. One of the earliest most probably is Charlotte’s mother, Justina TUBBE. Family stories of earlier descendants tell about visiting “grandma’s gravesite”. Fritz, himself is buried here. Charlotte died at her daughter Fanny’s home and is buried at Christian Cemetery, Nacogdoches.
The JUNGE Cemetery was nearly forgotten for decades.
But Ralph McCALMONT, a JUNGE descendant was fascinated by my
historical novel entitled “I AM Justina TUBBE” and was introduced to
the story of the cemetery.
Ralph, with huge effort and the help of Sarah TUBBE developed the cemetery. Today it is surveyed, fenced, has original markers restored and memory stones with appropriate genealogical information for each grave site.
The cemetery now has legal standing in State of Texas, recognition by the Internal Revenue Service, a functioning board of directors and a substantial endowment. The process has begun to attain Texas Historical Cemetery status and to gain suitable permanent access to the site.
A genealogical JUNGE/ TUBBE book is near completion with a history of the cemetery and genealogical history of these families from the early sixteenth century to the current date. The book is filled with data, anecdotal stories and photographs.
Ralph McCALMONT plans to introduce the book at a gathering of the Prussian emigrant families of Nacogdoches County in 2012.
Perhaps we get to know even some more descendants by this
Charlotte TUBBE-JUNGE in her old days ................... her stone at Christian cemetery, Nacogdoches
More info: www.GiselaLaudi.de ; Contact and questions GiselaLaudi@aol.com
My historical novel: German : "Justina Tubbe ", Westkreuz Verlag, http://www.westkreuz-verlag.de/buch_s/justina_tubbe,pd90!,,487.html
English : "I Am Justina Tubbe", Carolyn Ericson, Nacogdoches, http://www.ericsonbooks.com/familyhistories.html > L1000
"German Emigration House" www.dah-bremerhaven.de